Overview

The Amaranthus genus is a large group containing a diverse set of plants ranging from annuals to perennials, some of which are grown for their edible leaves, seeds, or use as decorations for wreathes and bouquets. Many of the annual types are considered weeds and are known as pigweed. Extremely important to the Aztec culture, it was known as huauhtli and used in rituals. The seed is gluten free and a good source of protein. Leaves are also highly nutritious. Many of these plants use a modified photosynthesis known as C4, which is advantageous in drought conditions and high temperatures.

The Purple Amaranth variety is cultivated mostly for its seed, but also for the edible leaves. Amaranthus cruentis is also called Blood Amaranth, Red Amaranth, and Mexican Grain Amaranth. Leaves are usually green, but can also be purple to red, and have similar culinary uses to spinach. Plants will grow very quickly and easily in most conditions, reaching a height of up to 8 feet. You can easily use the leaves of this plant as a tasty new element for salads or cooked greens.

  • Botanical Name: Amaranthus cruentus
  • Plant Type: Seed/Grain Vegetable
  • Variety: Purple
  • Growth Cycle: Annual
  • Season(s): Spring Summer Fall
  • Climate Zone(s): 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5a 5b 6a 6b 7a 7b 8a 8b 9a 9b 10a 10b 11a 11b
  • Light: Full Sun
  • Soil Type(s): Clay Loamy Sandy
  • Yield: 1 lb leaves per plant
  • Garden Dimensions: 1 plant per 2' x 2' square
  • Germination: 10–21 days
  • Maturity: 110–150 days
  • Harvest: 45–150 days

Cultivation

Propagation

Seed:
Seed Depth: 1/4–1/2″
Space Between Plants: 6–24″ (more space if planting for grain harvest, less if for microgreens)
Space Between Rows: 2–5′
Germination Soil Temperature: 65–75°F
Days for Germination: 10–21
Sow Indoors: 6–8 weeks before average last frost date.
Sow Outdoors: After average last frost date when soil is at least 60°F.

Vegetative: Can be propagated by taking stem cuttings. Simply cut a 4″ long section of the stem with 2–4 leaves. Bury the bottom 2″ in the soil where you want it to grow and keep it well watered until it roots. Alternately, use a soilless media, which may include perlite, vermiculite, well-rotted manure, sand, or a combination of these to root your cuttings before transplanting to their final location.

Climate

Grows best in tropical to subtropical climates. It prefers hot weather, and plants which mature during the heat of the summer with temperatures of 77–86°F will have the highest yield. This is because it uses a slightly different but more efficient method of photosynthesis which works best in bright sun and dry weather. If the weather’s right, amaranth will be an efficient and easy to grow crop.

Light

Natural: Full sun.

Artificial: Due to its love of heat, amaranth will grow best under HID lamps, particularly metal halide if growing for its greens. When you want to harvest seeds, switch to a high pressure sodium lamp. Provide at least 12 hours of light daily.

Growing Media

Soil: Prefers well-drained sandy or loamy soils but is adaptable and will do well in many conditions. A broad range of pH from between 4.0 and 8.0 will keep plants healthy and nourished, but they will do best in limed, slightly alkaline soils.

Soilless: Germinate seeds in a soilless mix or using mineral wool cubes.

Hydroponics: Thrives in a range of hydroponic systems, including recirculating NFT or a media-based system. Use perlite, gravel, or clay pellets as your growing media, if applicable, to keep the roots well-drained.

Aeroponics: Grow microgreens or root cuttings in aeroponic systems.

Care

Water: Requires low to moderate levels of water. They are mildly drought tolerant, but you should still water 1 or 2 times per week during an extreme drought.

Nutrients: Requires low to moderate levels of nutrients. It is generally a good idea to add some compost or balanced organic fertilizer into the soil before planting. Amaranth is a particular hater of inorganic fertilizers, so don’t even try it.

Foliar: A foliar spray such as compost tea can be applied once per week.

Mulching: Use mulch to suppress weeds.

Troubleshooting

Pest(s):

  • Aphids
  • Caterpillars
  • Cutworms
  • Flea beetles
  • Leafminers
  • Mites
  • Slugs
  • Snails

Disease(s):

  • Aster yellows
  • Cercospora leaf spot
  • Phyllosticta leaf spot
  • Root rot
  • Rust
  • Viral diseases

Deficiency(s): Nitrogen or phosphorous deficiency may result in slow growth and reduced production, particularly if growing to harvest the seeds.

Rotation and Companion Plants

Rotation: Amaranth will self-seed and can become somewhat of a nuisance if not kept in check. If you find your crop is having pest or disease issues, it would be a good idea to prevent this re-seeding and instead move your crop to a new area of the garden.

Companions: Grows well with corn, onion, potatoes, peppers, and eggplant.

Harvest and Storage

HARVEST: You can cut leaves as needed or take a 1–3 foot section of a branch and eat the whole thing. Always leave at least 2′ of the stem for regrowth. Harvest can begin as early as 45 days for mature leaves and earlier for microgreens. The stems of young plants are also edible, but as the plant ages and begins to flower, stems may prove too fibrous for enjoyment. If you’re hoping to harvest or save the seeds, don’t take more than 1/3 of the leafy growth or you could stunt seed production. Once the flowers begin to die (look for slight browning), cut flowers off the plant and place them in ventilated paper bags (or hang upside down) to dry. After the flowers have dried, thresh flowers inside the bag or on a cloth to release the grains. Pour the resulting material in front of a fan set to low to separate the heavier grains from the lighter chaff.

Storage: Store fresh leaves in the refrigerator for 3–5 days. Keep dried, cured seeds in the refrigerator or freezer in an airtight container for longest shelf life.

Other Info

Fun Fact: Amaranth has been domesticated since around 4000 BCE, with its origins in the Puebla, Mexico area.

Consumption

Preserve and Prepare

Preserve: Leaves can be blanched and frozen for later use. Another option is to dry leaves in a dehydrator or an oven set to low heat. The dry leaves can be ground into a powder and used an a nutritious addition to soups, smoothies, or other dishes. There are even recipes for pickles made from amaranth leaves. Grain is best preserved by drying.

Prepare: Central American residents have been consuming amaranth for as many as 6,000 years. Seeds are cooked and eaten as porridge, made into a flour or a sweet confection called alegría, or popped like popcorn. Seeds can also be sprouted and used on salads or sandwiches. Leaves are used like spinach: younger leaves are palatable raw in salads, while older ones fare better after cooking. Stems and older leaves are steamed, boiled, or sautéed and served as a side dish. They are found in curry and soup recipes throughout the world. The flavor is described as broccoli-like and earthy. The red feathery flowering heads of the plant are ground and used as a food dye.

Benefits

Nutritional: Cooked leaves provide vitamin(s) A, C, B, calcium, iron, potassium, zinc, copper, and manganese. The cooked grain provides B vitamins, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, and copper. Seeds also contain the essential amino acid lysine. This makes them a good complementary source of protein when consumed in conjunction with other grains like corn, oats, or wheat which have limited levels of lysine. Another benefit: amaranth provides protein without gluten!

Medicinal: Amaranth may be helpful for those with high blood pressure or heart disease, and regular consumption can help to reduce cholesterol levels. It also provides antioxidants and may help strengthen the immune system.

Warnings: Don’t eat amaranth grown on soils with very high levels of nitrogen. This is usually only a problem if using chemical or synthetic fertilizers. The plants will concentrate nitrates in their leaves which, when eaten, can cause health problems. Amaranth is also being investigated for levels of other possible anti-nutritional or toxic compounds including tannins, saponins, oxalates, and protease inhibitors. Most issues which may arise from these can be reduced or solved by cooking all parts of the plant prior to eating.

Culinary

Try this flavorful Indian amaranth leaf pickle recipe.

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