Vampires beware: these are not the soft necks you’re looking for! Whether used to keep evil spirits away in Europe, as a treatment for infections in China, or to add flavor to a tasty Italian dish, garlic has been an integral part of the human experience for thousands of years. Softnecks are the most common types of garlic found in your local grocery store. They are a great choice to grow because they are adapted to a wider range of climates, and tend to mature later and store longer than hardneck types. Other differences include more irregularly sized cloves, overall higher yield, and failure to produce a flowering stalk (well, most of the time). Different varieties of softneck garlic will vary in intensity of flavor, so be sure to check out your options before planting.
Although this variety shares a name with one of the busiest cities on earth, the New York White garlic (also called Polish White) is actually considered to be a more mild-tasting variety compared to other types of softneck garlic. While not overly aggressive in flavor, this beautiful allium has large cloves, lovely purple-tinted white skin, and a long storage life, making it an especially good candidate for decorative garlic braids. This variety is also quite hardy, which makes it a popular choice for gardeners in the Northeast and other regions that can experience extremely cold winters.
Seed: Softneck garlic will not produce flowering structures or seeds and must be propagated vegetatively.
Vegetative: Plant individual cloves from last year’s harvest.
Clove Depth: 1/4″
Space Between Plants: 4″
Space Between Rows: 12–18″
Sprouting Soil Temperature: 40–50°F
Days for Sprouting: 14
Sow Indoors: Not recommended.
Sow Outdoors: 6–8 weeks before first average frost date in the fall for best results. Can be planted in spring if stratified for 8 weeks before planting and set out in the soil as soon as soil is workable.
Although softneck garlic prefers warmer climates than its hardneck cousin, the New York White variety can withstand slightly lower temperatures than other softnecks and can even survive light freezes. For best results however, softnecks should be planted in the fall just before, or just after, the first frosts. Seedlings will not do well in temperatures below 20°F. If seedlings start to grow before the danger of frost has passed, covering them with a row cover or straw will help keep them warm.
Natural: Full sun. Partial shade in extreme heat.
Artificial: If planting indoors, use HID lamps a foot above plants to help seedlings grow.
Soil: Prefers loamy soil but will grow in most soil media. A pH of 6.0 to 8.4 with an optimum level around 6.8 will keep plants healthy and nourished.
Soilless: Plant bulbs or germinate seeds in a soilless mix of vermiculite, coconut fiber, well-rotted manure, or perlite.
Hydroponics: Will thrive in an NFT hydroponic system.
Water: Requires low to moderate watering: around 1–2″ per week during the growing season. Irrigation may be stopped when the leaves start to yellow since this indicates garlic is ready to harvest. It’s best to cease irrigating the plants a few weeks prior to harvesting to keep plants from splitting and allow time for the bulbs to naturally dry in the ground.
Nutrients: Composting soil in the spring will help plants grow. Be wary of adding too much nitrogen, potassium, or phosphorous, however, as garlic is generally a light feeder.
Foliar: Seaweed mix and fish emulsions applied once every two weeks will help bulbs grow.
Pruning: Occasionally, softneck varieties will produce scapes, or flowering heads, which should be trimmed to keep the bulbs growing. Many people cook and eat scapes, so consider saving them rather than throwing them in the compost!
Mulching: Organic mulch may be used immediately after planting; however, this isn’t necessary.
Rotation: A 5-year rotation away from all plants in the onion family is recommended.
Companions: Grows well with cabbage family plants, beets, lettuce, tomatoes, celery, and strawberries. Avoid peas and legumes.
Harvest: Harvest bulbs when the leaves have begun to turn yellow and dry out. Bulbs can be extracted by loosening the ground around the bulb with a shovel or spade and then pulling. Take care not to shovel too close to the plant: you might damage the bulb. If you’ve already done so, don’t worry! Damaged bulbs can be saved and used for planting in the future.
Storage: Bulbs can be stored by hanging in an aerated, dry location with the tops attached. Once dried, garlic will keep for long periods of time without any refrigeration. Check out our Helpful Links section for information on how to create your own beautiful garlic braid to brighten up your kitchen.
Fun Fact: It’s no secret today that garlic’s a health powerhouse, but even before modern science proved it so, ancient civilizations intuited the long list of benefits when consuming this bulb. In Egypt, for example, slaves were given garlic to keep them healthy while building the pyramids, and Greek athletes would consume garlic before competitions to increase their strength!
Preserve: Garlic may be stored dry or can be pickled in vinegar. It may also be dried and powdered or frozen in oil. If freezing or pickling, take care to read instructions carefully to avoid any risk of botulism.
Prepare: Used in a wide variety of dishes, garlic can be sautéed, roasted, crushed, or eaten raw. Garlic can be peeled by hand or smashed with the flat side of a knife to remove the papery skin. To easily peel a whole head of garlic, place in a bowl or pot with a cover and shake vigorously. This will remove the skin of the head all at once!
Nutritional: A good source of vitamin(s) B6, C, manganese, and germanium.
Medicinal: Traditionally used since ancient civilization, garlic has been cited as having many health benefits from lowering blood pressure to acting as an anti-inflammatory. Germanium has also been shown to assist in lowering the risk of certain cancers.
Warnings: Perhaps because it’s so frequently cited as a “cure-all,” reports have been made of individuals experiencing adverse reactions to garlic. Consult your physician before using garlic topically for any reason as it can cause burns or inflammation. Allergies to garlic and other plants in the onion family may also occur.
Roasted garlic is so incredibly savory and aromatic we guarantee it’ll improve almost any dish! Try Roasting a Head of Garlic before tossing it in pasta, on top of a pizza, or into some roasted veggies.